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Notes from World Geography

Physical Geography // Internal and External Processes

Climate Patterns and Processes

Historical Impacts

  • Irregular Coastline
  • natural deep harbors
  • Due to weathering of landmass
  • No further than 300 miles from the coast
  • Aided in acts of exploration and colonization
  • on trade routes
  • Mountain Barriers

  • Highlands in South: Limited interaction with N/S
  • Cultural Divergence: mountains, created isolated pockets of population example: Basque-language unrelated to others
  • Physical Environment: Blocked colder air to create warmer climates and different ecosystems, affected agriculture and economies
  • North European Plain

  • Flat, fertile land-easy flow of people and goods
  • Highest population density
  • Cultural crossroads-migration, numerous ethnic and religious group that have led to conflict
  • Rivers/River Valleys

  • Numerous, navigable waterways (deep)
  • trade routes, cultural convergence, diffusion
  • Thames River- London’s location allows ships to sail up Thames and port
  • Rhine River- flows north from Alps
  • Rotterdam, located at mouth, one of world’s busiest ports
  • Danube River
  • flows through 8 countries
  • connected economies and cultures of E Europe
  • ends at Black Sea
  • flow E
  • (Video) Landforms

  • +mtns in S- Alps (many have glaciers-->valleys)
  • Pass- route through mountains (easy)
  • (tunnels)
  • Sierra Nevada- last Muslim rule
  • agriculture- soil, altitude, climate conditions
  • NEP- glacier melt, too sandy/marshy for crops
  • Spain-plateau(flat)
  • England and Ireland-lowland-flat
  • (Video) Climate

  • definite seasons
  • Mineral resources -(indust rev)
  • more demand: wind, nuclear
  • Unity and Division in Europe

  • Political Systems
  • Some form of democracy for all govts
  • since the end of Cold War
  • Western= more stable, older democracies
  • Eastern= newer, less stable democracies
  • have govt corruption and ethnic conflict issues as well
  • Economic Characteristics

  • Western: more developed highly indust tert & quat activities resource rich, esp NEP long history of market w/ socialist elements
  • Eastern: not as developed industrialized with tert act history of command-to-market after cold war challenges privatization, high employment, inflation, weak infrastructure, civil unrest
  • Economic Activities

  • Primary: main: AGRICULTURE-moderate climate, fertile soil, few physical barriers; ex: NEP, Central France, Steppe Grasslands in Ukraine
  • Secondary: Largest manufacturing regions france, england/uk, germany
  • commonalities: fairly flat terrain, mild climates, easy access to rivers, oceans ++++mineral resources (coal and iron)
  • Tertiary: W europe: extensive trade networks w/in region and w/ world --> navigable rivers and easy ocean access
  • Quaternary: W-High technology, finance, specialized business. Due to high standards of living and highly educated workforces; ex: switzerland: banking, finance, scientific and medical research, etc.
  • GDP:

  • Western
  • 100% ind rev
  • sea trade
  • colonial powers
  • Social Characteristics

  • one of highest population densities
  • 3% of world landmass
  • over 500 mill people
  • highest densities: NEP, bodies of water
  • 80% Urban (W=+, E=less)
  • Processes:
  • Industrial Rev began in Europe
  • pull factors- factory jobs
  • mechanized agr
  • ARABLE(fertile) land supports +pop
  • some of world’s largest cities (ex: London, Paris- near rivers/body of water)
  • Standard of Living

  • High
  • Processes:
  • long life expectancies, high literacy rates, high levels of health care due to higher taxes, many countries provide healthcare and have higher tax rate, differences between E/W Europe,

    Cultural Chacteristics

  • mostly Christian
  • Largely catholic
  • E Orthodox
  • Protestant in the north
  • some islam in balkan peninsula
  • immigration is bringing muslim groups to W European countries, creating some conflict
  • Language

  • Mostly Indo-European roots
  • Romance (Latin) and Germanic (in north) = West
  • E= mostly Slavic
  • Exceptions: Basque, Albanian, Celtic, some mix
  • sometimes a dividing force (Ex: belgium, basque, spain, romania)
  • Ethnicity

  • West: Largely homogenous, Long history of being homogenous, ex) germany, french, nordic nations, italy; immigration impact homogeonous, guest workers from new regions to fill jobs of shrinking workforce-DIFF CULTURES, Ex) germany w/ turks, france w/ africans
  • East: Geographic crossroads (NEP)= +diverse, +conflict ex) balkan peninsula, many empires fought over and ruled peninsula, 20thy century balkanization (groups of people break apart into smaller (hostile) political unites based on ethnicity) multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multiple languages
  • Changing Borders // The Berlin Wall: Video Notes
    Poland- Russia, Prussia, Austria
    Ottoman-Romania, Bulgaria,  Serbia, Montenegro
    WW started- killed leader and wife
    Background Info
    1930s- Germany invaded Austria, Czech, Poland
    e1940s-Germany conquered much of Europe
    End of WWII
    Germany defeated by the Allies
    The Allies: Britain, Soviet, US
    Germany split to Soviet, French, US zones
    Berlin is Soviet Territory?
    Berlin split into 4 zones
    The Building of the Berlin Wall
    built in 1961-took many years
    purpose: contain East Berlin from going to W Berlin
    Facts about the Wall
    stretched about 100 miles around W Berlin
    12 ft high
    symbol of the Cold War
    different economies on either side
    Soviets stripped all industry out of the territories
    Check Point Charlie- crossing zone between US/Soviet territory
    German Reunification
    varying ideas about bring E/W back together into one country
    Not everyone wanted Germany to reunify
    George HW Bush
    Pres of US when wall fell 1990
    continued friendly relations w/ SU
    Mikhail Gorbachev
    Soviet Premier of Russia
    Margaret Thatcher
    Prime Minister of Britain
    Francois Mitterrand
    Pres of France
    Helmut Kohl
    Chancellor of Germany
    1989-Berlin Wall fell
    1990-German Unif. concluded
    The European Union: Case Study
    [Winston Churchill quote] Europe tries to work together, ends up fighting
    supranationalism- countries that work together
    WWII- 25 years
    Europe ravaged and destroyed by war again
    Two Goals
    rebuild countries’ shattered economies
    prevent new conflict
    assassinated archduke Serbia  & A-H
    like a match
    S turns to Russia who turned to France, GB, Italy
    A-H turns to Germany
    stalemate before US joined
    ended with treaty- US didn’t ratify, but GB, F, & I did
    1951: The European Coal and Steel Industry
    France and Germany started working together to sign treaty-resources --> multinational group
    Italy, Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, Lux)
    1957: Common Market (EEC)
    removed trade barriers and tariff
    common eco goals
    allow to work in any member country
    Trade 4x in member nation in 11 years
    1967: European Community
    ECSC and EEC combined to make EC
    F, W Germ, It, Benelux
    1970: EC expands
    +Denmark, Ireland (not developed), UK (separated in past; called other “the continent”)
    1979: Euro Monetary system
    (pre) central bank of Europe
    single currency
    1980s: Expanding and Change
    81-Greece (poor, invest in infrastructure, etc.)
    86-Spain and Portugal (poor, invest in infrastructure, etc.)
    87-Single European Act-outline for later treaty that created EU
    Early 1990s
    W/E G reunified following fall of BW
    W knew eco, govt issues, but E also had weak infr, bad econ
    microcosm-small example of what all of Europe would go through
    W/E still not completely equal
    EEA (Euro eco area)
    1993- EU
    Members of EC-->EU
    F, G, Neth, Belg, Lux, It, Ir, Den, UK, S, Port
    New members: Austria, Finland, Sweden (Norway neutral, no switz)
    Schengen Agr-elim borders between memb countries
    Late 1990s
    new 1998-mostly from E bloc
    Frankfurt, Germ-E Cent Bank inaugurated
    1999- Euro (only between banks)
    Euro legal tender in about 11 countries (no UK)
    Pol, Cz, Slovak, Hung, Slovenia, Est, Latv, Lith, Malta, Cyprus (mostly Greek, close to Asia)
    Turkey wait 25 years
    Bulgaria and Romania
    Candidate: Turkey, Macedonia, Croatia
    Yugoslavia may apply, maybe ukraine
    EU Construction
    2002-2004: work on Constitution (unified govt)
    2005- voting by member nations- all must agree, France and Neth said no at beginning
    Attempt to combine trees
    defined powers between countries, possible actions, rights of veto
    Constitution not approved --> Lisbon Treaty (approved by govt, not people)
    Major Goals of EU
    improve eco cooperation
    rep in parliam
    +standard of living
    -barriers --> common eco, bank, foreign policy
    support eco goals through infrastructure investment
    telecom, satellite, railways, airports, port cities, highways
    Class Discussion- Map ?s
    multiple member countries working together
    common goals of the EU bring together, saw economic benefit
    about ˝ use euro
    Schengen agreement-remove trade barriers in EU
    ***treaties and what they did**
    ECSC- 1st to remove barriers, economic
    share natural resources-control somebody else
    disagreement on treaties
    diversity-some homogenous within, not overall though
    GB and Sp argue for Gilbraltar
    territorial disagreememnts
    euro- ex: Britain, E countries not allowed to use
    ***diff between W/E europe and what they want out of the EU
    immigration policies (e->w)
    scotland and wales given some freedom
    Catalonia, Rome Alps, Padonia (Italy), Wuttenburg all want +autonomy (in geographic paradox)

    Texas History Timeline

    Febrary 18, 1695LaSalle established Fort St. Louis
    November 8, 1835The Grass fight
    Aprol 6, 1830The law of April 6, 1830 was made, changing the relationship between settlers and Mexico.
    March 6, 1836The Runaway Scrape began.
    1836Lamar was elected governor of Texas.
    1841Houston was re-elected as governor.
    1844Jones was elected governor because he pledged to follow Houston's policies.
    April 24, 1846US soldiers clash with Mexican troops.
    May 11, 1846President James K. Polk asks Congress to declare war.
    May 13, 1846The US declards war on Mexico.
    September 1847General Winfield Scott and his armly land in Molino del Rey.
    February 2, 1848The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed; the war ends.
    2009Presidential Elections